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Proyecto de polinización de áreas de montaña



El devastador efecto de la varroa sobre la abeja melifera

Desde hace décadas, la supervivencia de la abeja melífera (Apis mellifera) se ha visto claramente amenazada debido a la presencia del ácaro de la varroa que fue introducido por abejas asiáticas importadas al continente europeo. Con el transcurso de los años la varroasis se ha convertido en un enemigo mortal que la abeja melifera europea en estado que la silvestre no pudo superar, sobreviviendo exclusivamente este tipo de abeja en circunstancias de control humano mediante aplicación de tratamientos específicos contra la varroasis.

Por ello, territorios de montaña, como la Cordillera Cantábrica, han visto desaparecer casi por completo las poblaciones de abejas silvestres que, al no poder ser tratadas para evitar la enfermedad, han desaparecido. Además, el paulatino abandono del medio rural y la actividad apícola, hace que sea prácticamente imposible encontrar colmenas en las zonas altas de los valles, concentrándose las que quedan en las zonas más bajas y con mejores accesos. A esto hay que añadir el hecho de que la polinización se ve dificultada en el caso de los ecosistemas de alta montaña donde predomina una orografía abrupta ya que las áreas de pecoro de las abejas (distancia máxima que se desplazan para buscar polen desde la colmena) se estiman en torno a 1,5 kilómetros alrededor de la colmena, frente a los 3 km de en relieves menos accidentados.  Ver video

Perdida de la función polinizadora de las abejas

La desaparición de las abejas conlleva una disminución de las funciones de polinización, lo que a su vez está teniendo repercusiones muy negativas sobre los ecosistemas naturales. No hay que olvidar que la abeja melífera realiza el 80% de la polinización entomófila y que una inadecuada polinización por las abejas se ha puesto de manifiesto en una menor productividad de frutos como el arándano o el cerezo, frutos que, a su vez, constituyen una parte esencial de la dieta de especies tan amenazadas como el oso pardo y el urogallo cantábrico que en la actualidad cuentan con poblaciones de 130 y 400 ejemplares respectivamente.


El objetivo general de esta iniciativa es el favorecimiento de las poblaciones de la abeja silvestre (Apis melifera) en zonas con algo valor ecológico con el fin de aumentar los niveles de fructificación de especies vegetales claves en la dieta de dos de más emblemáticas de la Cordillera Cantábrica: el oso pardo y el urogallo


El proyecto se ha llevado a cabo en Asturias y en el norte de las provincias de Palencia y León.

Instalación de colmenares


1.- Instalación de 69 estaciones de polinización (540 colmenas) videos  
Ver video

  • Elaboración de un mapa de polinización
  • Selección de parcelas
  • Firma de acuerdos con particulares
  • Instalación de 69 estaciones de polinización integradas por un total de 540 colmenas que han sido cedidas a particulares
  • Cierre preventivo de los colmenares con pastores eléctricos
  • Aplicación de tratamientos fitosanitarios

Asesoramiento técnico a los particulares a los que se ceden las colmenas

tabla estaciones de polinización de Asturias
Ver tabla estaciones de polinización de Castilla y León



Se han desarrollado dos estudios científicos, uno en Asturias y otro en el norte de la provincia de Palencia, para determinar en qué medida la colocación de colmenas repercute positivamente en unos mayores niveles de fructificación de varias especies de cuyos frutos se alimentan el oso y el urogallo

Estudio de polinización desarrollado en Asturias por la FIRE (Fundación Internacional para la Restauración de Ecosistemas)

  Ver video
 Estudio de polinización desarrollado en Palencia epartamento de Producción Vegetal y Recursos Forestales de la ETS de Ingenierías Agrarias de Palencia (Universidad de Valladolid)

icon-9 Descargar



  • Edición de un tríptico informativo  Descargar
  • Edición del Manual de Apicultura y Conservación de la Biodiversidad  Descargar
  • Edición de un audiovisual sobre el proyecto  Video 1ªparte /Video 2ªparte /Video 3ªparte
  • Edición de cartel para promocionar la apicultura en Asturias  Descargar
  • Artículos científicos y divulgativos
  • Rueda de prensa para dar a conocer el proyecto
  • Jornada sobre apicultura
  • Exposiciones
  • Ferias
  • Jornada de voluntariado




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3ª parte

Galería de imágenes


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